1. What is Covid? Why is it called Covid – 19 and SARS-CoV-2
The name Corona Virus is derived from Latin, which is the name for a new virus strain that has never appeared in humans: “corona” means “crown” or “halo”.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), acute respiratory infection caused by a new strain of corona virus (nCoV) is Covid – 19.
Covid – an acronym for “corona virus disease”, “CO” stands for corona, “VI” stands for virus, “D” stands for “disease”. And the number “19” in Covid-19 refers to 2019 – the first year this disease was discovered.
On February 11, 2020, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) announced that the common name for the Covid-19 disease and Corona Virus 2 would be SARS-CoV-2. This name represents the genetic character of this virus related to the Corona virus that caused the SARS epidemic (2003) – but the two viruses are different.
Which group of infectious diseases is Covid-19?
Group A infectious diseases are a group of particularly dangerous infectious diseases that spread quickly and widely and cause high mortality or unknown causes.
3. How long does the Covid-19 virus live in the air?
According to research, the virus that causes Covid – 19 can live for as long as 3 days on plastic surfaces. steel and persists in airborne droplets emitted from a cough at room temperature for up to 3 hours.
How long the virus lives depends on the nature of the virus as well as the natural conditions (humidity, surface material).
At cold temperatures (about 4 degrees Celsius), the virus will live longer, about 1 month. From 20 to 25 degrees Celsius, the virus will gradually weaken, live about 5-7 days. Corona virus will weaken quickly, less likely to cause illness from 33 degrees Celsius or more.
4. What disease does the Covid-19 virus cause?
People infected with Covid-19 have symptoms mainly of acute respiratory infection, which means that Covid-19 causes respiratory disease.
In addition, diarrhea and laboratory tests showed that there was a virus in the stools in some patients infected with Covid – 19. Therefore, although it is uncertain, the possibility that Covid – 19 damages mucosal cells cannot be excluded. other membranes, including the gastrointestinal tract.
5. Origin of the Covid-19 epidemic
At the end of December 2019, the Covid-19 epidemic broke out from a wildlife trading place in Vu Han – Hubei (China). The causative agent found in the patient was identified as Corona virus – a common virus that causes disease in animals (highly likely from bats, pangolins or snakes).
However, this virus strain is completely new, which is thought to be a virus that causes disease in animals, has changed into a virus that causes disease in humans. The virus then spreads from person to person, making control extremely difficult.
6. What are the strains of Corona virus?
Covid strains are divided into 7 types, of which 4 are not dangerous: 229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1; Next, more dangerous are two types: MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, which have caused a global pandemic.
The last type is the causative agent of the Covid-19 epidemic, which is different from the previously known strains of Corona virus. Named “new Corona virus” (Novel Coronavirus – abbreviated nCoV). This new strain name also has more information about the year of discovery in the scientific nomenclature, so the full name will be 2019-nCoV.
7. Mechanism of transmission of Covid – 19
The mode of transmission of Covid-19 can be from animals to humans or from person to person.
Transmission from animals to humans
The mode of transmission from animals to humans is not entirely clear, but it is certain that the first person (or group of people) to contract the Corona virus from an animal was exposed to a source of virus spread by animals (faeces). , secretions, eating raw meat, etc.).
The virus then infects cells in the respiratory tract of an infected person, multiplies here and causes respiratory disease, spreads out through the upper respiratory tract of an infected person, and then spreads from person to person. this to another.
There are three main routes of human-to-human transmission: droplets, air, and surface contact with the virus.
– When an infected person coughs or sneezes (when not wearing a mask), droplets of liquid (containing the virus) with a size of 5 micrometers or more will be released, at this time the Covid-19 virus from the human respiratory tract. infected pathogens will be spread to the outside to be inhaled and infected by people around.
– When an infected person coughs, sneezes, or receives medical care by sputum suction procedures, aerosolization, the virus will spread through droplets less than 5 micrometers in size into the air, making people around around inhalation and infection.
Viruses contained in droplets or air will adhere to surfaces such as masks, clothing, surrounding utensils, etc., then if they touch these surfaces, healthy people will become infected.
8. How dangerous is Covid – 19?
Since the end of World War II, the Covid-19 pandemic is considered as the disaster that has brought the heaviest damage to humanity. After more than a year since the outbreak of Covid-19 in China, the epidemic still has unpredictable changes, continues to increase and affects the lives of people around the world.
Covid-19 virus seriously threatens the health of infected people, complications of Covid-19 are extremely dangerous, not only affecting the respiratory system but also poisoning other internal organs, specifically the level of danger. The dangers of Covid-19 will lead to diseases:
8.1. Acute pneumonia
8.2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
8.3. Acute liver injury
8.4. Acute heart injury
8.5. Acute kidney injury (AKI)
8.6. Secondary infection
8.7. septic shock
8.8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation
8.9. Rhabdomyolysis syndrome
8.10. Childhood multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C)
8.11. Dermatological diseases: rash, hair loss
8.12. Nervous problems: smell, taste, trouble sleeping, trouble concentrating, memory problems
8.13. Psychiatric symptoms: depression, anxiety, mood swings
9. How long does the new strain of corona virus (nCoV) incubate?
New strain of corona virus (nCoV) causing acute respiratory infection Covid – 19 can appear symptoms after an incubation period of 2 to 14 days, with an average of 5 days.
However, in a few cases, the nCoV virus has an incubation period of more than 14 days.
During the incubation period, people infected with the virus can still infect others, so contact with someone who does not have symptoms does not mean it is safe. Infection with Covid-19 can occur before the first symptoms appear.
10. Is Covid – 19 curable?
Currently, the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health organizations have not made any recommendations for specific drugs to treat Covid – 19. Therefore, the treatment supports health and resistance. and symptomatic treatment is key.
Scientists around the world are working hard to find and develop treatments for COVID-19:
– Optimal supportive care includes oxygen for critically ill and at-risk patients, and more intensive respiratory support such as artificial ventilation for critically ill patients.
– Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid, which can help reduce the time of mechanical ventilation and save the lives of people with severe and severe illness.
WHO does not recommend self-administration of any medicine, including antibiotics, to prevent or cure Covid-19.
11. Symptoms of people infected with Covid-19
Symptoms of Corona virus infection from day to day will vary depending on the physical condition and resistance of each individual, but the symptoms are evident from 2-14 days.
Day 1 to Day 3:
Symptoms are similar to those of a common cold.
– Mild sore throat, no fever, no fatigue.
– Eat and drink normally.
– Throat starts to hurt slightly, the person is lethargic.
– Start to hoarse.
– Body temperature increases slightly.
– Mild headache, mild diarrhea.
– Starting to lose appetite.
– More sore throat, more hoarseness.
– Body temperature slightly increased
– Body fatigue, pain in joints.
– The symptom of Corona virus 2019 is the beginning of a low-grade fever.
– Cough with phlegm or dry cough without phlegm.
– More sore throat, pain when swallowing, when eating or speaking.
– Body fatigue, nausea.
– Diarrhea, possibly vomiting.
– Back or finger pain.
– High fever below 38 degrees Celsius
– More cough, more phlegm.
– Body aches.
– Shortness of breath.
– More diarrhea and vomiting.
– Fever around 38o.
– Shortness of breath, wheezing, heaviness in the chest.
– Cough continuously, talk a lot, mute.
– Joint pain, headache, back pain.
Conditions such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, heaviness in the chest… become more severe.
11.2. Do people with Covid-19 have a runny nose?
Symptoms when infected with Corona virus are often confused with the common flu, but people with Covid-19 will not have a runny nose, but only have symptoms of cough, dry cough, persistent cough, fever …
11.3. The earliest manifestation of people with Covid-19
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC) warns that one or all of the symptoms of Covid-19 can appear anytime within 2-14 days after exposure. with the nCoV virus.
The earliest manifestations will include:
Fever: when infected with the virus, a fever will exceed 38 degrees Celsius, measured in the late afternoon or early evening. This is the first sign to help identify Covid-19 infection.
– Dry cough: When taking ordinary cough medicine, it is not possible to completely treat cough caused by Covid – 19.
– Fatigue, exhaustion, body aches
11.4. How many degrees does a person with Covid-19 have?
During this incubation period from 2 to 14, people with Covid-19 will have a dry cough and low-grade fever. A fever of 38.1 – 39 degrees Celsius will suspect Covid-19 and is often accompanied by decreased taste and smell function.
11.5. Do people with Covid-19 have a stuffy or runny nose?
WHO said that about 5% of people with Covid-19 have symptoms of nasal congestion, runny nose, although not common signs but easily confused with flu and cold.
11.6. Does cough with phlegm occur in people with Covid-19?
WHO has reported that after monitoring 55,924 people with Covid – 19, more than 33% of patients have symptoms of cough with phlegm, mucus is produced from the lungs, the cough comes from the chest area and the bronchial tubes are inflamed. annoying.
11.7. Skin rash when infected with Covid-19
According to researchers, it is not possible to ignore signs of skin rash to recognize SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.
– Feet, finger
– Eczema on neck, chest, mouth area
– Rash lumpy, blistered
These symptoms will go away on their own after 10 days.
11.8. Sore throat when infected with Covid-19
One of the most typical and common symptoms of Covid-19 is sore throat, dry cough, cough with phlegm and foam.
A sore throat caused by Covid-19 is easily confused with a common sore throat, but home treatment is not effective.
11.9. Symptoms of Covid – 19 nausea
Nausea is one of the early signs of Covid – 19. The patient will have nausea before 1-2 days and then the fever will start.
11.10. Do you sneeze if you have Covid-19?
Sneezing symptoms do NOT occur in people with Covid – 19. This is just a symptom of flu, cold only. Therefore, each person needs to get a flu vaccine every year to reduce the risk of flu and avoid confusion with Covid – 19.
11.11. Symptoms of Covid – 19 difficulty breathing
The most typical warning sign of Covid-19 is difficulty breathing, shortness of breath in the chest because the SARS-CoV-2 virus directly penetrates into the lungs, controlling the respiratory system.
11.12. Diarrhea when infected with Covid-19
People with Covid-19 may experience diarrhea due to pneumonia (in the lower lobes of the lungs). Older people with Covid-19 also have more severe digestive symptoms.
12. Who is likely to contract the SARS-CoV-2 virus?
There are 3 groups of people at high risk, vulnerable to threats by Covid – 19 according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
Group 1: Elderly people (from 65 years old and above)
Causes of the elderly’s susceptibility to and high mortality from Covid-19 include:
Immune system function decline: the important organs in the body will gradually degenerate and decline in function as the age increases, making the body’s immune system weaker, unable to fight viruses.
– Excessive inflammatory response: as we age, the level of inflammation will also increase, causing damage to the lungs, kidneys and affecting many other organs in the body.
– Ease of complications: Elderly people often have pre-existing medical conditions, so when the virus invades, it will cause respiratory infections, leading to serious complications in the heart, liver, and kidneys.
– Lung function decreases with age: poor ventilation, prone to pneumonia, respiratory failure
Group 2: People with underlying medical conditions – subjects susceptible to Covid-19
Subjects at high risk of death if infected with Covid-19 are those with underlying medical conditions such as:
– Have chronic kidney disease
– Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
– People with liver disease
– People with cardiovascular disease (heart failure, coronary artery, myocardium)
– People with weakened immune system
– Nervous disorders
– Sickle cell disease
Therefore, people with the above diseases need to be very cautious, well control the underlying disease and take measures to improve their health.
Group 3: Men are more infected with Covid-19 than women and children
The journal Frontiers in Public Health published a study on gender differences in Covid-19 patients. The results show that men and women are equally likely to contract the virus, but men may experience more serious complications and higher mortality.
Scientists have explained this difference as:
– Men’s habits and behaviors: not regularly washing hands properly, paying little attention to disease problems, smoking, using alcoholic beverages…
Biological differences between men and women: Testosterone in men suppresses inflammation while estrogen in women activates cells involved in the antiviral response. So women have better immune systems than men.
13. Methods of diagnosing Covid-19
13.1. Differential diagnosis
– It is necessary to differentiate acute respiratory infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) from acute respiratory infections caused by other common agents, including those causing severe disease. known:
+ Seasonal influenza virus (A/H3N2, A/H1N1, B), parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, myxovirus, adenovirus.
+ Flu syndrome caused by common strains of coronavirus.
+ Common infectious causes, including atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumonia etc.
+ Other causes can cause severe acute respiratory infections such as avian influenza A/H5N1, A/H7N9, A/H5N6, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.
– It is necessary to differential diagnosis of severe conditions of the patient (respiratory failure, organ failure …) due to other causes or due to the severe condition of accompanying chronic diseases.
13.2. Diagnostic test
– Suspected cases, need to be tested to confirm infection with SARS-CoV-2.
– Take upper respiratory tract fluid (oropharyngeal & nasopharyngeal fluid) for testing to identify the virus by real-time RT-PCR technique.
– When the upper respiratory tract specimen is negative but the clinical suspicion remains, the lower respiratory tract fluid (sputum, bronchial aspirate, alveolar lavage) should be obtained.
– If the patient is on a ventilator, only the lower respiratory tract can be taken.
The use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests is not recommended for the diagnosis of ongoing COVID-19 infection.
– Suspected cases, even in cases where other common pathogens have been identified, should have a confirmatory test for SARS-CoV-2 at least once.
If sepsis is suspected or present, blood cultures should be obtained before antibiotics are administered. It is necessary to test for other bacterial and viral etiologies if clinical signs are suspected.
– It is necessary to perform a full range of laboratory tests and routine investigations depending on the patient’s condition for diagnosis, prognosis, and patient monitoring.
– Those who are positive for SARS-CoV-2 should report to the local Ministry of Health or CDC.
– Determine epidemiologically related to positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 such as: place of living, working place, travelling, making a list of people who have had direct contact, complying with directions guidance on supervision and prevention of COVID-19 of the Ministry of Health.
14. How to prevent Corona virus
– Do not go out unless absolutely necessary, do not gather more than 2 people in public places.
– Always wear a mask when going out, even when working; Always stand 2 meters away from others.
Always wash your hands with soap under running water or with an antiseptic solution, especially after touching anything and after meeting and talking with others before going home.
– Do not touch your eyes, nose, mouth. When you get home, you have to change clothes and clean up.
– Regularly gargle with salt water or mouthwash; Keep the chest and neck warm, drink warm water. Change clothes when you get home and change clothes need to be soaked with soap.
– Eat well, eat well, drink well, exercise appropriately, live healthy.
– Regularly clean, keep the house well ventilated, and clean frequently touched surfaces.
– If you are isolated, you must stay at home, limit contact with people in the house, follow the isolation instructions of health authorities.
– Do not go to a medical facility if it is not an emergency. Please ask the medical staff by hotline or online before you want to see a doctor.
15. Treatment of Covid – 19
Treatments for coronavirus (COVID-19)
The NHS is offering antibody and antiviral treatments to people with coronavirus (COVID-19) who are at highest risk of becoming seriously ill.
The treatments available are:
- nirmatrelvir and ritonavir (Paxlovid)
- sotrovimab (Xevudy)
- remdesivir (Veklury)
- molnupiravir (Lagevrio)
Nirmatrelvir, ritonavir, remdesivir and molnupiravir are antiviral medicines.
Sotrovimab is a biological medicine. It is also known as a neutralising monoclonal antibody (nMAb).
These treatments can help some people manage their COVID-19 symptoms and reduce the risk of becoming seriously ill. They are for people who have not been admitted to hospital.
Who can have a COVID-19 treatment
You’re eligible for COVID-19 treatments if all of the following apply:
- you’re aged 12 or over
- you’re at highest risk of getting seriously ill from COVID-19
- you have symptoms of COVID-19
- you have tested positive for COVID-19
People at highest risk
You may be at highest risk of getting seriously ill from COVID-19 if you have:
- Down’s syndrome
- sickle cell disease
- HIV or AIDS
- chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4 or 5
- certain types of cancer
- had certain types of chemotherapy in the last 12 months
- had radiotherapy in the last 6 months
- had an organ transplant
- a severe liver condition (such as cirrhosis)
- a rare condition affecting the brain or nerves (multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease, Huntington’s disease or myasthenia gravis)
- certain autoimmune or inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease)
- a condition or treatment that makes you more likely to get infections
A doctor or specialist will confirm if you are eligible for treatment.
How was this list decided?
COVID-19 treatments research
Some antiviral medicines are also available through a national study, led by the University of Oxford.
The study is open to people in the UK who:
- have tested positive for COVID-19
- have COVID-19 symptoms that started within the last 5 days
- are aged 50 and over, or are aged 18 and over with a health condition that puts them at high risk of getting seriously ill from COVID-19
If you take part in the study you may be randomly selected to receive an antiviral medicine.
Find out more about the University of Oxford COVID-19 antiviral study on the Panoramic trial website
How to get a COVID-19 treatment
Keep rapid lateral flow tests at home
If you are eligible for COVID-19 treatments, make sure you have some rapid lateral flow tests at home so you can get tested quickly if you get symptoms of COVID-19.
Rapid lateral flow tests are tests that show you the result on a device that comes with a test.
If you do not have tests at home or need more tests, you can order free COVID-19 rapid lateral flow test kits on GOV.UK.
If you cannot order tests online, you can call 119 free of charge.
You will no longer be sent a PCR test kit to keep at home.
If you were previously sent a PCR test kit you can keep it. You may be asked to use it if you receive COVID-19 treatments.
Take a rapid lateral flow test if you get symptoms
If you have any symptoms of COVID-19, take a rapid lateral flow test as soon as possible, even if your symptoms are mild.
Do not use a test you have bought, such as a test from a supermarket or pharmacy.
You cannot report a result from a privately bought test on GOV.UK, which means the NHS cannot contact you about COVID-19 treatments.
Report your test result
You must report your COVID-19 rapid lateral flow test result on GOV.UK.
If you cannot report your test result online, you can call 119 free of charge.
You need to report your test result so the NHS can contact you about treatment if your result is positive.
What happens if you test positive
If you’re eligible for treatment and you test positive for COVID-19, it’s important to start the treatment as soon as you can. Treatments for COVID-19 need to be given quickly after your symptoms start to be effective.
If you have reported your positive test result, the NHS will usually call you within 24 hours of your result.
They’ll give you more information and ask questions to check if treatment is right for you.
They may ask what other medicines you take or receive, including any vitamins and minerals, so it’s important to have a list of these ready.
Treatments for COVID-19 are free of charge on the NHS. The NHS will never ask for your bank account or card details, or ask you to pay for treatment.
If you have not been contacted within 24 hours of your positive test but you are eligible for COVID-19 treatments, call your GP surgery or specialist, or call 111. You cannot get help for this online.
Your GP, specialist or NHS 111 will be able to make an urgent referral if needed.
What to do if you test negative
If your test result is negative but you still have symptoms of COVID-19, you need to do 3 rapid lateral flow tests over 3 days.
So if you did your first test today, you should do another test tomorrow and a test the day after.
If any of your tests are positive and you have reported the result, the NHS should contact you about treatment.
Which treatment will I get?
The NHS will advise which treatment, if any, is suitable for you.
Some treatments come as capsules or tablets that you swallow and they can be taken at home.
The NHS will usually arrange for the medicine to be delivered to you or it can be collected by someone else such as a friend, relative or NHS Volunteer Responder.
Other treatments are given to you through a drip in your arm (infusion). You’ll usually get them at your local hospital or in a local health centre.
You’ll get instructions on where to get the treatment and how to get there and back safely.
You may be asked to take a PCR test. The NHS team arranging your treatment will explain how to get a PCR test.